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How to prevent major environmental pollution accidents in coal-fired power plants? 2020-04-13


1. Strictly implement the environmental impact assessment system and the "three simultaneous" principles of environmental protection

 

(1) The construction and operation of new construction, expansion and reconstruction projects must meet the requirements of environmental impact assessment documents and their approval.

 

(2) The wastewater treatment equipment must ensure normal operation, and the test data indicators of the wastewater after treatment should meet the requirements of the design standards and the relevant provisions of the Comprehensive Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978).

 

It is advisable to use dry ash removal conveying system and dry slag discharge system. If hydraulic ash removal is used, the gray water should be recycled and used, and a hydraulic test must be done before the gray water system is put into operation.

 

The corresponding flue gas dust removal (electric dust collector, bag dust collector, electric bag) should be adopted in accordance with the emission limits specified in the "Emission Standards for Air Pollutants of Thermal Power Plants" (GB13223) or the stricter local smoke pollutant emission standards Compound dust collectors, wet electric dust collectors, etc.), flue gas desulfurization and flue gas denitrification facilities, the environmental protection facilities and systems put into operation should operate normally, the removal efficiency should meet the design requirements, and the discharge concentration of each pollutant should reach Emission standard requirements.

 

The ash, sulfur, and low calorific value of the actual coal quality of the boiler should not exceed the design coal quality and check coal quality. Strengthen the blending management of coal-fired, rationally allocate coal-fired boilers, comprehensively consider the sulfur content, ash content and low calorific value of coal-fired coal, so that the coal quality of the coal entering the furnace meets or approaches the design requirements.

 

Ash yard dam should fully consider the strength and safety of the dam. The dam engineering design should maximize the rational use of water resources and build a grey water reuse system. The ash yard should be designed without leakage to prevent pollution of groundwater.

 

2. Strengthen the operation and maintenance management of the ash yard

 

(1) Strengthen the safety management of the power plant ash dam body. Set up ash dam body monitoring points, conduct regular assessment of the safety of the ash yard and ash dam, and submit the assessment report and related materials

 

Electricity regulatory agencies for the record. Dams that have been built must be dealt with and reinforced in a timely manner for the defects and hidden dangers that endanger the safety of the dam.

 

Establish an ash yard (ash dam body) safety management system and clarify management responsibilities. Special personnel should be set up to conduct regular inspections on ash dams, ash pipes, ash yards and drainage and seepage facilities. The inspection system should be adhered to and the inspection records should be carefully made to find defects and hidden dangers and resolve them as soon as possible. The ash yard management should be strengthened during the flood season and the frequency of inspections should be increased.

 

Strengthen the monitoring and analysis of gray water system operating parameters and pollutant discharge, and take timely measures if problems are found.

 

Regularly inspect the ash pipe, focusing on the wear of the ash pipe, the condition of the joints and various supporting devices (including the fulcrum and the pipe bridge), etc., to prevent the occurrence of pipeline breakage accidents. The gray pipeline should be shut down in time when it leaks to prevent spreading and forming pollution accidents.

 

For ash yards that are used in districts or are being transported out of ash, a strict management system to prevent dust pollution must be formulated and implemented, and necessary dust prevention facilities should be equipped to prevent dust from polluting the surrounding environment.

 

The ash yard should take measures such as covering soil, rolling, planting or surface solidification according to the actual situation to prevent dust pollution.

 

Periodically monitor the water quality of groundwater observation points and observation wells around the ash field regularly, and supervise and monitor by local environmental protection departments and relevant department monitoring stations according to the prescribed cycle to ensure that no groundwater pollution accidents occur.

 

3. Prevent excessive discharge of wastewater

 

Internal power plant should achieve centralized wastewater treatment, and the treated wastewater should be recycled. The EIA requires that the power plant in the plant area shall not be equipped with waste water discharge ports, and shall not be allowed to set up waste water discharge ports. The EIA allows power plants with wastewater discharge ports to be set up in a standardized manner to meet the requirements of environmental protection departments. At the same time, automatic wastewater monitoring facilities should be installed, and the "Technical Specifications for the Installation of Online Monitoring Systems for Water Pollution Sources (Trial)" (HJ / T353) should be strictly implemented.

 

The water balance test of the whole plant should be done regularly. Understand the water consumption of the whole plant, inspect the power consumption of the whole plant and the reuse rate of the whole plant. Strengthen the graded utilization of waste water, optimize the use of water-saving analysis, and do a good job of water-saving and waste water treatment and transformation in accordance with the principle of multi-use and reuse of water.

 

Strict operation and maintenance and repair systems should be formulated for wastewater treatment facilities, and the maintenance and management of wastewater treatment facilities should be strengthened to ensure the normal operation of wastewater treatment facilities.

 

The operation records of waste water treatment facilities should be kept, and the operation rate, treatment efficiency and waste water discharge compliance rate of waste water treatment facilities should be regularly monitored.

 

When the boiler is chemically cleaned, a waste liquid treatment plan must be formulated and executed after approval. The waste liquid generated by the cleaning process should be reused as much as possible after reaching the standard to reduce the amount of waste water discharged. If the pickling waste liquid is entrusted to be shipped out for disposal, the first one must be qualified, and the second power plant must supervise the treatment process and keep records.

 

4. Strengthen the operation and maintenance management of dust removal, ash removal and slag removal

 

Strengthen the operation, maintenance and management of the dust removal facilities of coal-fired power plants, and the operation parameters of the dust removal facilities are controlled in the best state. Handle the faults and problems in the operation of the equipment in time to ensure the dust removal efficiency and commissioning rate of the dust removal facilities. The emission concentration of smoke and dust shall meet the requirements of the local and national emission standards, and those that fail to meet the emission standards shall carry out efficiency improvement of dust removal facilities.

 

The dust removal efficiency, electric field commissioning rate, and smoke emission concentration of the electric precipitator should meet the design requirements. The electric precipitator after new construction, renovation, and overhaul should be subjected to performance tests, and the performance indicators that do not meet the standards shall not be accepted.

 

The dust removal efficiency, filter bag breakage rate, resistance, and filter bag life of the bag filter and electric bag compound filter should meet the design requirements. After the new construction, reconstruction and overhaul, the bag dust collector and electric bag compound dust collector shall be tested for performance, and the performance index shall not be accepted unless they reach the standard. When the bag filter or electric bag compound filter is in operation, the filter bag should be dealt with in time.

 

To prevent dust catcher dust hopper from clogging, according to the electric field (bag) dust removal amount, the transportation capacity of the ash delivery system should be reasonably allocated to ensure that the dust collector dust hopper is within the allowable range. The ash hopper should be equipped with a high-level alarm and an emergency ash discharge device. When the hopper is at a high level for a long time, mandatory ash discharge measures must be taken to prevent the dust collector ash hopper from collapsing.

 

To prevent the leakage of the conveying pipelines of the dry ash removal conveying system, dry slag discharge system and hydraulic conveying system, emergency measures and plans should be formulated and regularly drilled.

 

Under the working conditions of oil gun ignition, fuel oil, kerosene mixing, and plasma input when the boiler is started, the electrostatic precipitator should be operated below the flashover voltage, and the filter bag of the bag type dust collector or electric bag compound type dust collector should be pre-sprayed in advance deal with. At the same time to prevent the secondary combustion inside the dust collector, ash storage, furnace bottom dry slag discharge system, require timely transportation to avoid accumulation.

 

The bypass flue and baffle of bag filter or electric bag compound filter should have zero leakage.

 

5. Strengthen the operation and maintenance management of desulfurization facilities

 

Formulate a complete desulfurization facility operation, maintenance and management system, and strictly implement it.

 

The desulfurization facility must be put into operation at the same time as the boiler. The desulfurization efficiency and commissioning rate should meet the relevant requirements, and the sulfur dioxide emission concentration should meet the local and national emission standards. If the local and national emission standards cannot be met, efficiency improvement should be carried out. Desulfurization facilities are prohibited to operate with bypass baffles. Desulfurization facilities without bypasses and with bypass flue blockages should ensure efficient and stable operation.

 

Strengthen the operation, maintenance and management of desulfurization facilities to ensure that the hourly average concentration of sulfur dioxide meets the standard emission. Optimize adjustment of desulfurization control parameters, such as pH value, density, liquid level (dry circulating fluidized bed desulfurization tower misoperation, bed pressure, desulfurization and dust removal operating parameters), etc., to improve the stability of desulfurization facilities. Establish a complete chemical sampling and analysis system for flue gas desulfurization facilities,

 

Perform regular sampling and analysis of the quality of absorbent, absorption tower slurry, dehydrated gypsum, etc. The operating personnel should adjust the equipment operation mode in time according to the analysis results. The performance test of the desulfurization facility operation status should be carried out every year, and the capability and status of the facility should be comprehensively evaluated in combination with the test data.

 

Desulfurization facilities must be put into a wastewater treatment system during operation, and the treated wastewater indicators should meet the relevant national standards.

 

Newly built, renovated and overhauled desulfurization facilities shall undergo performance acceptance tests, and those that do not meet the standards shall not be accepted.

 

Strengthen the maintenance of desulfurization facilities, conduct regular inspections on the corrosion of equipment such as absorption towers, heat exchangers, and flues in desulfurization facilities to prevent multi-point and large-scale corrosion.

 

For desulfurization facilities that do not have flue gas heat exchanger (GGH) heating equipment, the gypsum content in the flue gas after desulfurization should be regularly monitored to prevent the desulfurized gypsum from being carried out in the flue gas.

 

Prevent the occurrence of running and dripping of the slurry pipeline of the desulfurization facility, and deal with the leakage in time.

 

By-products of desulfurization facilities should be stacked in accordance with requirements to avoid secondary pollution.

 

The upstream equipment dust collector of the desulfurization facility should ensure that the outlet smoke concentration meets the operation requirements of the desulfurization facility, and avoid the poisoning of the absorption tower slurry.

 

6. Strengthen the operation and maintenance management of denitrification facilities

 

Formulate a complete denitration facility operation, maintenance and management system, and strictly implement it.

 

The denitration efficiency and commissioning rate of the denitration facility should meet the design requirements. At the same time, the nitrogen oxide emission concentration meets the local and national emission standards. If it does not meet the standard requirements, it should be installed, replaced with catalysts or other transformation measures.

 

Denitration facilities after new construction, reconstruction, addition or replacement of catalysts should be tested for performance, and those that do not meet the standard shall not be accepted. The catalyst shall be subjected to periodic performance evaluation and inspection in accordance with the requirements of catalyst management, establish performance index files and life curves, and conduct comparative analysis with the design values.

 

The design of the ammonia area should meet the "Code for Fire Protection Design of Buildings" (GB50016), "Code for Design of Fire Dike in Storage Tank Area" (GB50351), the technical specifications and relevant requirements of the local safety supervision department, and the ammonia area should have lightning protection, explosion protection, and prevention. Static design. The new liquid ammonia storage tank area should be designed with an inverted tank system. When one of the storage tanks has a leakage accident, the liquid ammonia in the leaked tank can be poured into another safe liquid ammonia tank. The management of the use of liquid ammonia shall comply with the requirements of relevant policies, regulations and standards of the “Regulations on the Safety Management of Liquid Ammonia Irrigation Districts of Coal-fired Power Plants” and the “Regulations on the Safety Management of Liquid Ammonia Uses” of China Guodian Corporation. 25.6.5 The discharge compressor, liquid ammonia supply pump, liquid ammonia evaporation tank, ammonia gas buffer tank, ammonia gas dilution tank, ammonia storage tank, valves and pipelines in the ammonia area shall be free of leakage.

 

The spray cooling system in the ammonia area, the fire water spray system, and the ammonia leak detector should be tested regularly.

 

The ammonia purge system should meet the design requirements, and the system should operate normally.

 

Under the working conditions of oil gun ignition, fuel oil, kerosene co-firing, and plasma input when the boiler is started, the catalyst can prevent the accumulation of combustibles.

 

Strengthen the operation and maintenance of the ammonia escape monitoring device to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the measurement. 25.6.10 Liquid ammonia storage tank area leakage or ammonia-containing wastewater must be processed by the process and discharged to the standard. Untreated wastewater that meets the standard is prohibited from being discharged into the rain and drainage system. The generated waste water is collected by the waste water tank and then sent to the industrial waste water treatment plant for centralized treatment by the waste water pump. The total output of the waste water pump should meet the discharge of the largest incoming water in the waste water tank.

 

According to the relevant regulations and requirements of the "Environmental Protection of Solid Waste Pollution Law" and the "National Hazardous Waste List", properly deal with the waste acid, wastewater, sludge and waste generated during the transfer, regeneration and utilization of waste flue gas denitration catalysts, Avoid secondary pollution. Non-renewable and unusable waste flue gas denitration catalysts (vanadium-titanium series) should be handed over to hazardous waste management companies with corresponding capabilities (such as hazardous waste landfills) for disposal.

 

Equipped with liquid ammonia storage equipment, denitration facilities using oil-fired pyrolysis furnaces should formulate accident emergency plans, and regularly conduct environmental pollution accident prediction, fire prevention, and explosion prevention treatment exercises at least once a year.

 

Strengthen the regular training of denitrification facility management, operation and maintenance personnel, so that they can systematically master the specific operation of the denitrification facility and the emergency treatment measures, especially the operation and accident handling in the event of an accident or emergency.

 

The power plant should be equipped with wind vane, and its location should be set at a height that is easy to see by the employees of the enterprise and nearby residents within 300m. In the event of a liquid ammonia leakage accident, it should immediately report to the relevant department and start the emergency rescue plan. When the leakage affects the personal safety of the surrounding residents, it should be immediately notified, and personnel should be organized to move upward.

 

7. Strengthen the operation and maintenance management of the flue gas online continuous monitoring device

 

According to the relevant content of the "Continuous Monitoring Technology Specification for Flue Gas Emissions from Stationary Pollution Sources" (HJ / T75) and the "Technical Requirements and Testing Methods of Continuous Monitoring System for Flue Gas Emissions from Stationary Pollution Sources" (HJ / T76).

 

Strengthen the operation and management of the flue gas online continuous monitoring device to ensure the accuracy of flue gas dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, temperature, flow rate, oxygen content and other parameters, and ensure the transmission rate and efficiency of data transmission.


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